Toward a More Robust Theory and Measure of Social Presence: Review and Suggested Criteria

Frank Biocca, Chad Harms, Judee K. Burgoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1226 Scopus citations


At a time of increased social usage of net and collaborative applications, a robust and detailed theory of social presence could contribute to our understanding of social behavior in mediated environments, allow researchers to predict and measure differences among media interfaces, and guide the design of new social environments and interfaces. A broader theory of social presence can guide more valid and reliable measures. The article reviews, classifies, and critiques existing theories and measures of social presence. A set of criteria and scope conditions is proposed to help remedy limitations in past theories and measures and to provide a contribution to a more robust theory and measure of social presence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)456-480
Number of pages25
JournalPresence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2003
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition

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