Historically, municipal solid waste is mostly disposed in landfills. However, with the more stringent environmental regulations and difficulties in locating new waste disposal facilities, the low cost advantage of landfills is no longer true. This manuscript discusses the development of a new generation of landfills to achieve sustainable management of municipal solid waste. A sustainable landfill involves sequential application of anaerobic degradation, aerobic decomposition, and landfill mining. Biodegradation of waste in landfills is enhanced through leachate re-circulation, landfill gas collection, air injection, and environmental monitoring. Practical waste mining and recycling processes are also presented. This new generation of landfills will eliminate the commonly encountered problems of ground/surface water contamination and landfill gas emissions, as well as the need for new land for waste disposal and associated truck routing issues for new landfills. Copyright ASCE 2008.