Trihalomethanes formation potential of shrimp farm effluents

Taha F. Marhaba, Aweewan Mangmeechai, Chaichana Chaiwatpongsakorn, Prasert Pavasant

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Shrimp farm effluents along the Bangpakong River in the Chachoengsao Province of Thailand were evaluated for their trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) and related parameters. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC), salinity and bromide ion concentrations of shrimp farm effluents were in the ranges of 12-14 mg/L, 0.1-14.5 ppt, and 0-14 mg/L, respectively. The dissolved organic matter was fractionated into hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions having a range concentration of 3-5 and 8-10 mg/L, respectively. The THMFP for all shrimp farm effluents analyzed was in the range of 810-3100 μg/L. The hydrophilic organic fraction was found to be a more active precursor of trihalomethanes (THMs) with 700-966 μg/L THMFP obtained from this fraction, while only 111-363 μg/L THMFP was derived from the hydrophobic fraction. The experimental results showed that salinity and bromide played crucial roles in the formation of THMs. At low salinity and bromide levels, chloroform was the dominant THM species, whereas at high salinity and bromide levels, bromoform became the dominant species. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrum analysis of the samples before and after chlorination illustrated that the functional groups involved in the THM formation reaction were phenolic compounds, amines, aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic bromo-compounds, and aliphatic chloro-compounds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)151-163
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 21 2006

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


  • Disinfection by-product
  • Hydrophilic
  • Hydrophobic
  • Shrimp farm wastewater


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